Study of a Core Skill Factor through the Z Game

Jordi Balaguer Vives

*Corresponding author: Jordi Balaguer Vives

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Cite this article

Balaguer Vives, J. (2017). Study of a Core Skill Factor through the Z Game. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 128, 48-63.



The purpose of this study is twofold; to measure a core skill factor (CSF) through teaching and learning a cooperation and opposition game called the “Z game” (physical education) and then to compare this factor with the academic results of first year lower secondary education students and their out-of-school sports (hours per week). The students (boys, n = 11; girls, n = 12) in first year lower secondary education at Enric Borràs High School in Badalona took part in 15 sessions (12 practical ones in the playground and three theoretical ones in the classroom) in 2015. We evaluated this process with a participatory observation sheet featuring 21 indicators, three questionnaires and a written evaluation sheet. Our findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between the CSF and academic results which is above the level of out-of-school sports and the level of fitness. However, they should be interpreted with caution as it is a case study and not a generalisation about students in Badalona, Catalonia or Spain. The implications of the process may be wide-ranging and profound, in particular in thinking about how we teach and/or how we train. These core skills (self-control, sportspersonship, commitment, cooperation and understanding of the game) would be the keys to future learning, performance and competitiveness. A dynamic, integrated and nonlinear teaching and/or training system might be more effective and efficient.

Keywords: behaviour, Commitment, Cooperation, Learning, Self-Control, Skill.

ISSN: 1577-4015

Received: January 22, 2016

Accepted: October 4, 2016

Published: April 01, 2017