Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study of 3×2 Achievement Goals and Self-Determination in the Physical Education Setting

Cristina García Romero

Original Language Spanish



The main objectives of the seven empirical studies which make up this thesis are: 1) to analyse the evolution of the 3×2 achievement goals model and study the patterns of relationship with outcome variables such as motivational regulations, basic psychological needs and emotional intelligence; 2) to examine the differences with respect to age and gender, and 3) to validate an emotional intelligence questionnaire in the physical education setting. The sample for the cross-sectional studies consisted of 1689 students (M = 13.25), while the longitudinal studies involved 282 students (M = 13.03). The instruments used were: 3×2 achievement goals questionnaire (3×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire in Physical Education), friendship goals questionnaire (RGQ-F), perceived locus of causality scale (PLOC), basic psychological needs measurement scale (BPNES), positive and negative affect questionnaire (PANAS-C), satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and an emotional intelligence questionnaire. The results of the cross-sectional studies show that as age increases all six achievement goals decrease and that males score higher in other-approach goals and task-approach goals. The emotional intelligence questionnaire fits the data well and replicates the three initial factors. The longitudinal studies reveal positive correlations of all 3×2 achievement goals with competence. Similarly, two clusters are included. The first cluster has a high profile on emotional intelligence, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, basic psychological needs, friendship goals, positive affect and satisfaction with life. The second shows a low profile in all variables. The final conclusions support a more adaptive pattern of task-approach goals, friendship-approach goals and the three factors of emotional intelligence with respect to motivational, emotional and wellbeing variables. Finally, a number of teaching implications are suggested.

ISSN: 2014-0983

Published: April 01, 2021

Date read: April 05, 2019