The Integration of Educational Technology into the Training for Refereeing in Elite Football: The Use of the “Interactive Video Test”

Manuel Armenteros Gallardo

Antonio Jesús Benítez Iglesias

*Corresponding author: Manuel Armenteros Gallardo

Original Language

Cite this article

Armenteros Gallardo, M., & Benítez Iglesias, AJ (2011). The Integration of Educational Technology into the Training for refereeing in Elite Football: The Use of the "Interactive Video Test". Apuntes. Educación Física y Deportes, 105 , 12-20.



The application of technology to reduce referee errors is a matter for debate which opens up every time there are referee errors, such as those which occurred in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. This article presents a case of technological innovation which has been developed by the research group TECMERÍN in collaboration with FIFA’s referee department as part of the plan for improvement and the professionalization of refereeing worldwide. The “Interactive Video Test” uses the potential of video as training material with the advantages of the interactivity which the hypermedia supports provide. The article explains the design of the model, and presents the first results of user experience obtained from 11 referees and assistant referees from different cities of the world, who were sent a structured questionnaire on methodological, technological and usability themes. The average rating of the model, 4.7 on a scale of 5 points, shows a high degree of acceptance of the tool, and opens the way for future research which could relate influences between technological innovation and improvements in taking refereeing decisions.

Keywords: FIFA, hypermedia, Interactivity, Refereeing, User Experience, vídeo.

ISSN: 1577-4015

Received: September 10, 2010

Accepted: December 13, 2010

Published: July 01, 2011