Table 3

Summary of selected articles.

Autor/a (any)Type of source and publicationJournal and journal quality indexFieldParticipantsDescription of the research methodologyFactors associated with mental state
Anders and DeVita (2019)Academic article Research (case study)International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education
JCI1: 1.12
Perception and association of gender and sport (education)DeVita, a gender non-conforming (GNC) student in high schoolQualitative.
From the analysis of Butler’s work on gender and with a classical ballet coach and a football coach, the case of DeVita is analysed: a gender non-conforming student.
The article examines how the student expresses their identity, expression, sexual orientation and masculinity.
Anxiety and discomfort
Atteberry-Ash et al. (2018)Academic article ResearchSexuality Research and Social Policy
JIF2: 3.618
JCI: 2.05

Perception and association of gender and sport (education)
Students aged 17-29, 51.7 % male, 95.9 % undergraduates (approx. 40,000 students)Quantitative.
Cross-sectional study: The data for this article was drawn from a study examining the experiences and perceptions of LGBT issues among students engaged in after-school sports programmes ( = 2495)
Baiocco et al. (2018)Academic article ResearchJournal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health
SJR3: 0.894
Experience and discrimination in sport (adults)88 gay men and 120 heterosexual adult men between 18 and 36 years of ageQuantitative.
Questionnaire: examines how often gay people have experienced bullying at school compared to their heterosexual peers in the context of sport in Italy.
Bullying and psychosocial problems
Block (2014)Academic Article ReviewQuest
JIF: 2.910
JCI: 1.46
Experience and discrimination in sport (education)LGBTQ students in the subject of physical education Qualitative.
Analyses the needs of LGBTQ youth in physical education sessions, relating them to Kleinman’s phenomenological goals of physical education.
Psychosocial and medical problems
DeFoor et al. (2018)Academic article Narrative reviewSports Medicine – Open
JCI: 2.09
Prevention and inclusion (education)LGB student-athletesQualitative.
Analysis: 1- Vulnerability of the school environment 2- Non-inclusive heteronormative environment 3- Bullying and discrimination at home 4- Male and female athlete stereotypes 5- Prevalence of mental health problems and substance use 6- Making sport safer for future LGB generations
Welfare, bullying and discrimination
Devís-Devís et al. (2018)Academic article ResearchPhysical Education and Sport Pedagogy
JIF: 5.830
JCI: 3.06
Experience and discrimination in sport (education)Trans adults aged 23-62 years (5 trans women, 4 trans men) 9 in totalQualitative.
Semi-structured interview: about experiences in the heteronormative context of secondary school during physical education sessions (the questions are classified into four sections)
1- Difficulty in achieving desired gender 2- Preferences, dislikes and opportunities 3- Coping with transgression 4- Intimacy struggles
Violence and bullying
Doull et al. (2018)Academic article Research (temporal study)Journal of Sport and Health Science
JIF: 7.179
Experience and discrimination in sport (students)Data pooled at the population level for British Columbia, Canada (N = 99373). Sexual minority (LGB) and heterosexual youth. (48,410 men and 50,963 women)Quantitative.
Current portrait of sexual minorities’ (LGB) sport participation, compared to heterosexuals. Pooled population-level data was used to examine trends and disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth. logistic regression models by ages were used to examine changes in participation over time and disparities in participation (1998-2013). The data presented is from four years (1998, 2003, 2008, 2013)
LGTBIphobic climate and frequency of participation in sport
Greenspan et al. (2017)Academic article Systematic reviewJournal of LGBT Issues in Counseling
SJR: 0.560
Experience and discrimination in sport (student athletes)LGBTQ student athletesQualitative.
Systematic content analysis of nine flagship journals published between 1975 and 2015 to be evaluated: 1- LGBTQ and mental health studies 2- School counselling 3- Counsellor education 4- School psychology 5- Counselling psychology 6- Sport psychology 7-Physical education

Mental health and discrimination
Greenspan et al. (2019a)Academic article ResearchJournal of LGBT Youth
SJR: 0.583
Experience and discrimination in sport (education)58 LGBTQ+ youth participants (respond to the survey) 
13 participants (focus groups or interviews)
Qualitative and quantitative (mixed).
Survey and interview: 1- What are the alliances and relationships of LGBTQ+ youth? 2- What are the experiences of LGBTQ+ youth and allies at school, with coaches or physical education teachers

Insecurity, discomfort and bullying in class
Greenspan et al. (2019b)Academic article Research (case study)Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation
JIF: 1.711
JCI: 0.67
Prevention and inclusion (education)LGBTQ youthQualitative.
Review: examines the empirical underpinnings of the SAFE (School Athletics for Everyone) model for preventing discrimination against LGTBIQ youth, provides a successful example case, and disseminates relevant resources for practitioners

Stigma, discomfort and insecurity
Halbrook (2017)Doctoral thesis ResearchPerception and association of gender and sport (education)10 LGTBI secondary school coaches (6 men and 6 women). Age from 31 to 68 years. Identify as heterosexual (n = 9) and gay (n = 1)Qualitative.
Semi-structured interview: The interviews were based on concrete examples and the experiences of the coaches while working with LGB athletes 

Hostility and discrimination
Hargie et al. (2017)Academic article ResearchInternational Review for the Sociology of Sport
JIF: 3.780
JCI: 1.40
Experience and discrimination in sport (adults)10 self-identified trans-gender people, of whom 6 are women and 4 are men, aged between 25 and 62Qualitative.
Interview: 1- The changing room environment 2- The impact of sporting experiences at school 3- Fear in public spaces and the practice of sport and physical activity 4- Lack of perception of the health and wellbeing benefits of practising sport

Social stress, discomfort and anxiety
Krane (1996)Academic article Narrative reviewJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
SJR: 0.908
Experience and discrimination in sport (professionals)Lesbian athletesQualitative.
Analysis: The context of lesbians in sport
Low self-esteem, low confidence, low satisfaction
Krane and Barber (2005)Academic article ResearchResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
SJR: 0.793
Experience and discrimination in sport (professionals)13 lesbian school coachesQualitative.
Semi-structured interview: investigating the experiences of lesbian coaches at school level

Lee and Cunningham (2016)Academic article ResearchJournal of Sport
Psychology in

JCI: 0.60
Perception and association of gender and sport (adults)Students
150 students (52 women, 98 men) enrolled at a large public university in southwestern United States
Questionnaire: The responses were focused on examining associations between sexual prejudice, sexism, gender, and identification with men’s figure skating and American football.
Participation was voluntary and the questionnaire took 10 minutes to complete. All responses were kept anonymous
LGTBIphobia, aggression, violence
Mattey et al. (2014)Academic article Research (case study)Journal of Sport
Psychology in

JCI: 0.60
Prevention and inclusion (adolescents)Male and female volleyball players at state level. Under 15 / Under 17 / Under 19-23. Each age was separated by genderQualitative.
Anti-vilification programs in adolescent sport: programs to combat violence in adolescent sports. Bullying prevention workshop. These were age-appropriate to take into account differences in cognitive and emotional development. The aim of the workshop was to raise awareness about LGTBI-phobic bullying. 1.5 hours
Morris and Van Raalte (2016)Academic article Narrative reviewJournal of Sport
Psychology in
JCI: 0.60
Prevention and inclusion (adults)Trans-gender and gender non-conforming people (TGNC)Qualitative.
Analysis: how to create sports spaces where trans-gender and gender non-conforming people can feel safe. Examining good practices related to TGNC persons
Anguish, mockery, violence and discrimination
Moscoso and Piedra (2019)Academic article Literature reviewRevista Española de

JCI: 0.27
Experience and discrimination in sport (adults)LGTBI population and sportQualitative.
Analysis: the relationship between the LGTB population and sport. 1- History of sport and sexual minorities 2- Legislation, campaigns and policy initiatives on sexual diversity and sport 3- Overview of research
Discrimination and rejection
Pérez-Samaniego et al. (2019)Academic article Review article (metasynthesis)Sport Management

JIF: 6.577
JCI: 1.43
Experience and discrimination in sport (adults)Trans-gender peopleQualitative.
Metasynthesis: 604 documents related to these issues were identified, from which 12 qualitative studies were selected. The key issues were divided into four cross-cutting themes: 1- Language 2- Installations and spaces 3- Trans-gender people’s strategies on gender 4- Abjection
Feelings of exclusion
Petty and Trussel (2018)Academic article Research (interpretative retrospective)Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health
JIF: 6.736
JCI: 1.44
Experience and discrimination in sport (education)9 LGBT participants, 3 gay, 5 lesbian and 1 who identifies as trans-gender and gay. From 18 to 25 years oldQualitative.
Intesnive interview about the experiences of identifying as LGBT in secondary school
1- Evocative research framework 2- Stories: as a form of knowledge and representation
Frustration, confusion and bullying
Phipps (2019)Academic article ResearchInternational Review for the Sociology of Sport
JIF: 3.780
JCI: 1.40
Experience and discrimination in sport (education)9 trans-gender studentsQualitative.
Data from one student who identifies as trans* was extracted from a wider study of LGBT+ people in UK university sport
Plymire and Forman (2001)Academic article ResearchNWSA JournalPerception and association of gender and sport (professional sport)NBA women’s basketball fans, 44 surveyedQualitative.
Examined how women’s basketball fans approach the issue of lesbians in sport based on one post: “Is Cheryl Miller a lesbian?” 77 posts were collected between 21 April and 2 June 1997
Hiding sexual identity
Pronger (1999) Academic Article ReviewJournal of Sport and
Social Issues

SJR: 0.828
Experience and discrimination in sport (professionals)Lesbian, gay and queer athletesQualitative.
Analysis: of the theoretical framework on the sporting context that emerges from the interaction between elements of postmodern gay and queer theories

LGTBIphobia and stress
Sartore and Cunningham (2009)Academic article ResearchSex Roles 
JIF: 4.154 
JCI: 1.54 
Perception and association of gender and sport (education)Study 1: Current athletes in the United States of America (N = 229). Study 2: North American parents (N = 76).Qualitative and quantitative (mixed).
Questionnaire, study 1: questions about their participation in a sport coached by a gay man or lesbian, respectively.
Study 2 participants were asked whether they would allow their sons and daughters to be coached by a gay or lesbian coach. Going deeper into the topic, the open-ended question
Discrimination and stigma
Symons et al. (2017)Academic article ResearchAnnuals of Leisure Research 
SJR: 0.520 
Experience and discrimination in sport (adults)Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-gender, over 18 years old. 294 completed questionnaires. Of the 294 participants, 52 % (n = 153) were men and 48 % (n = 141) were womenQualitative and quantitative (mixed).
To examine the impact on sexism and homophobic discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay and bisexual people in sporting settings.
Questionnaire with open-ended questions: 1- Homophobia 2- Experiences of violence 3- Sexism 4- Other discrimination. It was asked under each category whether that category heading had been experienced and how often, and they were invited to give an example
Sadness, anger, anguish and shame. Negative engagement with sport
Turk (2018)Doctoral thesis (case study) Experience and discrimination in sport (students)The research sample included 35 professional student-athlete participants who identify as sexual minorities in the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I.Qualitative.
Multiple data collection demographic survey, interviews, focus groups, document review
LGTBIphobia languages of exclusion
Note. 1 Journal Citation Reports. 2 Journal Impact Factor. 3 SCImago Journal Rank