Table 3

Training methods and systems used with the TPG and ATRG groups.

CapacityTraining methods and sys-temsActivities or exercise
Maximum strengthI: 65-80%; S: 3-5; R: 6-12; Rt: 2-3’Crunches, lower-back on Roman chair, sit-ups, leg curls, bench press, pullover, pulley triceps, biceps curl with dumbbells, reverse flies
Specific strengthPlyometric method (I: Heights of 40-60 cm; S:3-5; R: 5-10; Rt: 3’)
Multiple horizontal jumps (S: 3-5; R: 5-10; Rt: 3’)Multiple throws: (I: 30-60%; S: 3-5; R: 5-10; Rt: 3’)
Plyometry: drop from a height of 40-60 cm followed by a quick jump upwards
Multiple forward jumps: travel as far as possible with a set number of jumps
Multiple tosses of a medicine ball simulating serve, forehand and backhand technique
Base endurance III/Aerobic enduranceVariable continuous method: (I:65%-75% Max HR; Du: 30-60’)Aerobic pace run (65-75% Max HR) combined with short (5-20”) high-intensity actions (85-90% Max HR) including changes of pace, direction and accelerations and decelerations
Specific endurance/ Anaerobic enduranceIntensive interval method with short intervals: (I: W 90-100% Max HR, Rt 120 bpm; S: 3-4; R: 3-4; Du: 20’’-30’’; Rt: 2-3’/5-10’)
Intensive interval method with extremely short 
intervals: (I:W95%-100 Max HR – Rt 120 ppm; S: 3-4; R: 3-4; Du: 8’’-15’’; Rt: 2-3’/5-10’)
On-court exercises with ball and racket, including specific movements and basic shots (serve, forehand, backhand, volley and smash):
Example 1. Serve-forehand-backhand
Example 2. Serve-forehand-backhand-forehand volley- backhand volley-smash
Example 3. Serve-forehand volley-backhand volley:
Reaction speedStarts and exercises and reaction gamesExample 1. Starts from different positions with visual and auditory stimuli: lying down (face-up, face-down), seated, back turned, standing, racing standing and crouching start. 
Example 2. Throw a ball at the tennis player, who has to catch it as quickly as possible. 
Example 3. The tennis player stands inside a square marked out by four numbered cones. The trainer calls out the numbers and the player has to touch them as fast as possible. 
Acceleration capacityRacing technique exercises
Chasing and speed games
Slopes and dragging: (I:95-100%, R:4-8; Di: 10-30 m; Rt: 1’-3’)
Racing technique exercises. Examples: Skipping, progressive skipping, heels to buttocks, high and long jumps.
Speed and chasing games. Examples: run after someone placed 2 metres away. In two groups of five tennis players standing opposite each other, one is even and the other odd. The teacher says a number, and if it is even, the even group has to chase the odd group and the other way round.
Slopes and dragging: slopes with a 6% off-level. Dragging with a speed loss of 10% of their record for the distance.
FlexibilityActive and passive stretching and PNF General stretching exercises to improve the flexibility of the body’s main joints and muscle groups by means of active and passive stretching.
Stretching exercises targeting the short muscles and PNF.
Note. I: intensity: S: series: R: repetitions; Du: duration; Max HR.: Maximum heart rate; bpm: beats per minute; Rt: rest; Di: distance; W: work time.