Table 2

Data concerning intervention programmes.

Art.ObjectiveType of studyTime VariablesMeasuring InstrumentsConclusions
1.Investigate the effects of yoga on visual attention, visual motor perception, hyperactivity and attention deficit. Pret-Post
(EG1: 15; EG2: 15; CG: 15)
12 weeks
24 ss/30 m
Visual attention, visual motor perception and attention deficit and hyperactivity behavioursVisual attention test (NEPSY), visuomotor accuracy (NEPSY II), ADHD Rating Scale-IV  Children who participated in the yoga programme improved their executive functions, attention deficit and hyperactivity. 
2.Evaluate the impact of academic lessons, integrating PA, on early literacy, rhyme and alliteration. Pret-Post-Post
(EG: 39; CG: 15)
8 months
300 m/wk
PA, early literacy (picture naming, rhyme and alliteration), teacher satisfactionIGDI, SOFIT, teacher satisfaction surveyA PA programme led by a teacher is effective in increasing PA and improving early literacy.
3.Determine the impact of lessons integrating PA on early literacy.Pret-Post-Post
(EG: 24; CG: 30)
6 months
300 m/wk
BMI, PA, early literacy skills, teacher satisfaction  Digital weighing scale, portable stadiometer, IGDI, SOFIT, satisfaction survey The programme promotes daily PA, improves literacy and reduces BMI increase.
4.Determine the effect of a low-cost, teacher-led intervention programme. Pret-Post-Post
(EG: 51; CG: 21) 
6 months
30 m/day
PA, early literacy, teacher satisfactionIGDI, SOFIT, teacher satisfaction surveyAcademic lessons delivered through PA improve early literacy.
5.Determine the effects of outdoor games prior to a learning experience on inhibitory control and attention.Pret-Post
(EG: U; CG: U)
2 weeks
2 ss/ 60 m
PA, inhibitory control, attention, age, gender, socioeconomic statusBehavioural coding scheme, observation scale The intervention improved attention and inhibitory control in learning sessions. 
6.Investigate the effect of integrated PA on geography tasks and learning.Pret-Post-Post
(EG1: 28; EG2: 29; CG: 30)
3 ss/week PA, geography learning and children enjoymentAccelerometer, memory tests, satisfaction questionnaireThe programme improved moderate and intense PA and learning of geography content.
7.Evaluate the effects of an integrated PA programme on the learning process of science content.Pret-Post-Post
(EG1: 30; EG2: 27; CG3: 29)
4 weeks
4 ss/10 m
PA, science learning and children enjoymentAccelerometers, memory test, satisfaction questionnaire Science learning in the integrated and non-integrated PA condition is greater than in the control condition. 
8.Evaluate the effects of a PA programme and body movement on Italian vocabulary learning. Pret-Post-Post
(EG1: 31; EG2: 23; EG3: 31; CG: 26)
4 weeks 
2 ss/15 m
PA, foreign languages vocabulary learningFree and key memory test, accelerometers Children in the integrated PA condition achieved better learning results in Italian vocabulary.
9.Evaluate the use of structured motor activities to teach mathematics and languages.Post test
(EG: 20)
30 m/4 days x weekLanguage comprehension and mathematics, children enjoymentRecording, research diary, observation sheets, reflective notes, and semi-structured interviewMovement experiences can improve understanding of mathematics and languages content.
10.Analyse the effectiveness of a programme based on PA and gestures on motivation and learning English vocabulary.Pret-Post
(EG1: 22; EG2: 38; CG: 28)
5 weeks
2 sessions/ week 1h 
Vocabulary learning, motivation, socio-demographic variables“Smiley scale”, vocabulary checklist, ad hoc questionnaire
PA is an effective motivational resource that improves academic performance and learning English vocabulary.
11.Examine the effectiveness of the CHAMP programme on motor skills and self-regulation.Pret-Post
(EG: 68; CG: 45)
5 weeks
15 sessions/ 40 m
Motor skills and self-regulation TGMD-2, Kindergarten Self-Regulation Assessment reward introduction taskThe CHAMP group significantly improved motor skills and maintained self-regulation scores.
12.Prove that integrating movement into the learning environment contributes to improved academic achievement.Pret-Post
(EG1: 61; EG2: 54; CG: 45)
145 days
90 m/day
Languages, mathematics and non-verbal languageMAT, CRT, SPM Matrices, Ordinal number sequencing testConscious movement improves academic achievement.
13.Examine the relations between motor and executive functions, and test the effects of an acute coordinated intervention in Physical Education.Pret-Post
(EG: 48; CG: 53)
25 minutesPA, executive functions, motor functions and task orderPolar Watch RS800sd, H1 sensor belt, “Simon says”, “hearts and flowers task”, M-ABC2No effect of an acute coordinated intervention on executive functions was revealed.
14.Examine whether learning foreign languages vocabulary through PA and gestures leads to better results and enjoyment for children.Pret-Post
(EG1: 23; EG2: 23; CG: 21)
4 weeks
8 sessions/
1 hour
Learning foreign languages vocabulary, children enjoyment“Smiley scale”, vocabulary checklistInstructional methods that combine PA and gestures are learning enhancers.
15.Verify the effects of PA on self-regulation in a sample of kindergarten children.Pret-Post
(EG1: 12; EG2: 13; EG3: 12; CG: 12)
15 minutesPA, self-regulation, cognitive control (reactive/ proactive)HTKS, General Dynamic Coordination Test More demanding coordination activities improved self-regulation and cognitive control.
16.Investigate the effectiveness of the “Walkabouts” active breaks programme on attention and behaviour.Pret-Post
(EG: 158; CG: 87)
7 weeks
(20 days)
3 times/ week
PA, self-regulation, attention, student and teacher enjoyment
Teacher diary, SOSMART, SWANThe programme facilitated learning and academic performance by increasing attention and self-regulation.
17.Investigate the effects of the PA programme (mini-trampoline) on the development of executive functions (EF).Pret-Post
(EG: 29; CG: 28)
10 weeks
20 m/day
PA, inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibilityAccelerometer, SCA, WMS, FIS The programme was not sufficient to improve executive functions.
18.Examine the effects of a structured PA programme on EF and perceived physical competence, compared to recess.Pret-Post
(EG: U; CG: U)
3 months
30 m/day
Demographic and anthropometric data, executive functions, perceived physical competenceDemographic questionnaire, executive function measure, Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social AcceptanceThe intervention significantly increased executive functions.
Note 1. Pre test (Pret); Post test (Post); Control Group (CG); Experimental Group (EG); Minutes (m); Sessions (ss); U: Unknown