Table 2

Summary of the most relevant characteristics of each of the studies included in this review.

StudiesObjectiveMethod and sampleResults
Cushion and Townsend (2018)To consider evidence of technology-enhanced learning in the education of coachesReview study: systematic reviewDespite the use of technology in training, teaching and learning, the evidence for its efficacy is weak, and its use requires further research
Driska (2018)Assess the effectiveness of online education programmesDescriptive study. Semi-structured interviews. N=21The assessment showed positive perceptions of the course and demonstrated that it can help expand learning opportunities and professional development
Koh et al. (2017)To investigate the perceived benefits of using internet coaching resources, the types of internet resources sought by youth soccer coaches, and also how the resources are used to improve their coaching knowledgeDescriptive study. Personal interviews. N=10The Internet was seen as a source for learning, due to its easy accessibility, time saving, low cost and the availability of new ideas. Google, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter were the most common platforms used to find learning resources, but checking the credibility of these learning resources is the biggest challenge that coaches face
Stoszkowski and Collins (2015)Explore coaches’ perceptions of their actual and preferred methods of acquiring new training knowledgeDescriptive study. Online survey. N=320Coaches preferred, and mostly acquired, coaching knowledge through informal learning activities
Kubayi et al. (2016)To examine the coaches’ preferences for their ongoing educationDescriptive study. Surveys during attendance at training courses, workshops and seminars. N=224Coaches wanted to learn more about motivational techniques and were more likely to continue their education as coaches if they wanted to train at a high level if the topics were relevant, and if the courses were available online
Sackey-Addo and Pérez (2016)Analysing the evolution of online learning for sports coaches: a tennis perspectiveReview study: systematic reviewThe use of good quality resources and materials obtained through online learning platforms produced benefits, not only for tennis coaches, but also for the tutors 
Pope et al. (2015)To examine the content of the information that coaches get from online sports psychology resources and its useDescriptive study. Online survey. N=253Coaches currently get information from online sports psychology resources “a few times a year,” but would get it “once a month” if more accessible and credible resources were available
Augustýn and Jůva (2014)To analyse the use of ICT in informal education and informal learning for handball coachesDescriptive study. Questionnaires. N=186The most frequently used sources are the materials on the Federation’s websites and the least used are paid-for sources, E-learning, webinars and video conferencing. 91% of coaches regularly use methodological materials on the Federation’s website. A computer is the most frequently used ICT medium for coaches for their education, but not especially so during training or matches. Progressively greater use of mobile phones is also to be expected, due to their many functions, such as a camera and the ability to work with video, but there is apparently a lack of suitable applications to allow their wider use
Callary et al. (2011)To use information from a survey to continue developing their coach education programmeDescriptive study. Online survey. N=765. It is estimated 45% of active coachesThe authors considered ways that sports organisations could use the survey information to further develop their coach education programme from an ongoing learning perspective
Mester and Wigger (2011)To explore online resources for the education of coachesReview study: systematic reviewAccessing information is no longer a problem. The challenge is, in any case, knowing how to compile, harmonise and adapt the information to the needs of the practical application and also to provide feedback to the scientists
Sanz (2011)To describe some of the most frequently used tools for the ongoing education of tennis coachesReview study: systematic reviewNew technologies for education are already available and the internet has had a great impact on access to information and education
Cushion et al. (2010)Provide an overview and analysis of existing research on coach learningReview study: systematic review Coaches learn in a variety of ways and from various sources: informal, non-formal, and formal. Informal learning through coaching experience and interaction with other coaches remains the dominant mode of learning
Reade et al. (2008)To discover how high-performance coaches access the knowledge of sports scientistsDescriptive study. Questionnaire. N=205There are differences between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being carried out, especially in the area of tactics and strategy. Coaches are more likely to consult other coaches or to attend coaching conferences for new information
Over (2008)To describe current advances available to coaches and players through information technology and computersReview study: systematic reviewThe accessibility of these resources and the progress of technology allow training in areas and lifestyles for people who had not previously been exposed to this quality of information, at relatively low cost for both the coach and the federations