Table 1

Description of the four styles and eight sub-dimensions based on Aelterman et al.(2019).

Support for autonomyThe teacher seeks to identify and promote the interests, opinions and feelings of the students, so that they can voluntarily become involved in the activities.ParticipativeThe teacher identifies students’ personal interests through dialogue, inviting them to provide ideas and suggestions. In addition, where possible, the teacher tries to offer alternative ways of solving activities so that they can develop at an optimal pace.
AttuningThe teacher tries to make the exercises more attractive and interesting for the students, trying to understand their perspective.
StructureTaking into account the students’ abilities, the teacher provides help and assistance so that they feel competent to master the skills.GuidingThe teacher seeks the progress of students, providing help and assistance as and when needed. The teacher provides hints so that students can continue independently and complete the task, questioning the teacher if necessary.
ClarifyingThe teacher communicates their expectations of students in a clear and transparent way and assesses against said expectations.
ControlThe teacher imposes their own rules, forcing the student to think and act in a certain way, regardless of what they think.SevereThe teacher demands discipline through an imposing vocabulary, marks the students’ obligations, does not tolerate contradictions and threatens sanctions if they do not comply with the rules.
DominantThe teacher exercises some power over the students to make them comply with the rules. They also repress students by making them feel ashamed, guilty and anxious.
ChaosThe teacher leaves the students to act on their own, making the teaching process confusing for them, in which they would not know what to do, how to behave or how to develop their skills.AbandoningThe teacher lets the students off the hook by allowing them to do whatever they want.
AwaitingThe teacher provides a motivational climate called laissez-faire where the initiative lies with the students. The teacher tends to wait and see how things unfold, not planning too much and letting things take their course.