Table 4

Summary of articles studying the characteristics of the ruck set phases during ball possession.

Kraak et al., 2016(n = 646) *matchesThe results indicate increased playing time results in an increase in the total number of rucks per game.
Schoeman et al., 2017(n = 60) *matchesMore effective offensive rucks lead to a higher standard of play, greater continuity and a greater ability to keep the ball in possession.
Vaz et al., 2019(n = 8) *matchesLosing teams are involved in a higher number of rucks than winning teams.
Bunker & Spencer, 2021(n = 45) *matchesWinning teams are involved in fewer than 78 rucks in their total offensive match sequences.
Ungureanu et al., 2019(n = 132) *matchesIncreased efficiency and speed of rucks generates greater speed in the game, which relates to a greater ability to score points.
Vaz et al., 2011(n = 159) *matchesIn close matches, winning teams are involved in fewer rucks than losing teams, and demonstrate a greater ability to generate quick set phases to provide more attacking options.
Kraak & Welman, 2014(n = 15) *matchesWinning teams use fewer players in the rucks than losing teams, thus creating a greater availability of attacking options in open play.