Table 3

Characteristics and results of the mixed method studies included.

ReferenceResearch designSampleSample characteristics VariablesInstrumentsGame-fiction (Length)
et al. (2019)
Pre-experimental static single-group action-researchNEG = 50
NCG = 40
NT = 2
BachelorAcademic performance, perception, motivation, teacher perception and gamified experienceQuestionnaire, Exam, Evaluation report, Interview, Anecdotal register, Focus groupBasic physical qualities  (~10 h)
et al. (2021)
Quasi-experimental non-equivalent group action-researchNEG = 26  NCG = 19  NT = 2Primary (5th)
(Nf = 18; Nm = 27)
Perception, motivation, responsibility, violence, psychological needs, and emotional and social functioning Questionnaires (BREQ-2; PSRQ; CUVECO; PNSE and EQ-i:YV), Interview, Student’s diaryProblem on the Island (~4 h) 
et al. (2020)
Pre-experimental longitudinal single-group action-researchNS = 290  NT = 4Primary and Secondary (only 1st and 2nd)
(Nf = 138; Nm = 152)
Intrinsic motivation, gamified experience Questionnaire Motivation Drawing, Focus group, Teacher diaryMarvEF (~25 h)
Flores-Aguilar  et al. (2021)Pre-experimental longitudinal single-group action-researchNS = 76College students from sports sciencesMotivation, engagement, academic performance, learning, gamified elements, ICT, cooperative learning and formative assessment.Self-Questionnaire (11 items) and three open-ended questions. Super Mario Bros (~60 h)
Ortega & Chacón (2022)Pre-experimental longitudinal single-group action-researchNA = 111Secondary (1st)
(Nf = 60; Nm = 51)
Final grades, students’ attitudes, motivation and work doneClass notebook, Rubric and Teacher’s notebookHarry Potter (~10 h)
et al. (2017)
Pre-experimental static single-group action-researchNEG = 73
NCG = 75
College students from sports sciences  Healthy lifestyles and gamified experienceQuestionnaire Green Survey, Overall assessment (only EG)The prophecy of the chosen ones (~60 h)
et al. (2018)
Pre-experimental single-group action-researchNS = 29Secondary (2nd)
(Nf = 11; Nm = 18)
Motivation, learning, prosocial attitudes, collaboration-cooperation, transfer of learning, gender and gamified experience Questionnaire: Diana, Two open-ended questionsExpandEF (~20 h)
et al. (2022)
Pre-experimental longitudinal single-group action-researchNS = 143 (Only girls)Primary  (5th and 6th)
Anxiety about failureSpanish AMPET questionnaire Four open-ending questionThe trip to Healthy Land
(~20 h) 
NS = Students sample; NT = Teacher sample; Nf = Female sample; Nm = Male sample; NEG = Experimental group sample; NCG = Control group sample