Table 2

Characteristics and results of quantitative studies non-randomised included.

ReferenceResearch design (N)SampleSample characteristics VariablesInstrumentsGame-fiction (Length)
Castañeda-Vázquez  et al. (2019)Pre-experimental single-groupNS = 64Physical Education
Teacher Education
(Nf = 40; Nm = 24)
Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and gamified experience Questionnaire CEAM II Actijuegos Pentathlon
(~60 h)
Ferriz-Valero  et al. (2020)Quasi-experimental non-equivalent groupNEG = 62
NCG = 65
Physical Education
Teacher Education
(Nf = 54; Nm = 73)
Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, academic performance and gamified experience Motivational Questionnaire CMEF ClassCraft (~30 h)
Fernández-Río  et al. (2022)Quasi-experimental non-equivalent groupNEG = 27
NCG = 27
Secondary (3rd)
(Nf = 26; Nm = 28)
Intrinsic motivation, autonomy satisfaction, competence satisfaction, relatedness satisfaction, and intention to be physically activeThree motivational questionnaires: PLOC, Basic Psychological Needs and Intentions. Dragon Ball Z (~14 h)
et al. (2018)
Pre-experimental longitudinal single-groupNS = 30 Bachelor (2nd)
(Nf = 15; Nm = 15)
Motivation, self-perceived and comparative motor competence, commitment to learning, anxiety and fear to failure, gamified experience MLPE Questionnaire Sociodemographic questionnaireDiverHealth (~10 h)
et al. (2021)
Quasi-experimental non-equivalent groupNGE = 17  NGC = 19Secondary (1st)
(Nf = 19; Nm = 17)
Health and back care knowledge, mood state, perception of effort, gender, resistance of flexor and extensor muscles of the trunk. Two theoretical questionnaires (COSACUES and COSACUES-AEF-), Feeling scale, OMNI scale, Three physical tests (Side bridge, Biering-Sørensen and Forearm plank)Back health (~6 h)
et al. (2022)
Quasi-experimental non-equivalent groupNEG = 133 NCG = 142Secondary
(Nf = 127; Nm = 148)
Basic Psychological Needs and motivationSatisfaction for basic psychological needs (BPNES) and motivation (SMS-II spanish version)ClassCraft (~10 h)
Real-Pérez et al. (2021)Quasi-experimental non-equivalent groupNEG = 49  NCG = 49Secondary (3rd and 4th)
(Nf = 58; Nm = 40)
Support and satisfaction for basic psychological needs, motivation and motivational climateSupport (CANPB) and satisfaction for basic psychological needs (BPNES), motivation (CMEF) and motivational climate (PEPS; SSI-EF)African dance  (~10 h)
NS = Students sample; NT = Teacher sample; Nf = Female sample; Nm = Male sample; NEG = Experimental group sample; NCG = Control group sample; EG = Experimental group; CG = Control group