Table 2

Categories of prevention strategies and coaches’ responses justifying them. 

Categories Responses from participants  
Promoting a positive climate  “Try to create as pleasant an atmosphere as possible for the relationship between colleagues” (football coach)
“\[…] always make teams and pairs so that everyone can get to know each other throughout the season” (acrobatics coach)

Extra-sports events for group members to interact as friends outside of training” (skating coach)
“\[…] to do trips, like camps” (football coach)
“I make a lot of use of cooperative challenges and group dynamics where everyone’s participation is required” (basketball coach)
“Encourage respect, education, tolerance and helping others […]”. (football coach)
“Ensuring that all the boys and girls in the team are included”. (athletics coach)
Communication“Talk to the children individually to see what emotional situation they are in”. (volleyball coach)
“\[…] I try to talk to each of my players once a day so that they can explain to me how they feel in the team […]”. (multisport activities coach)
“\[…] stay in contact with parents to find out, as soon as possible, about possible problems at home or at school that could lead to such behaviour”. (football coach)
Observation“From the beginning, be attentive to any kind of situation and behaviour of the children […]”. (multisport activities coach)
“Keep an eye on those who appear to be the aggressors”. (football coach)
“I pay a lot of attention to the way they behave towards each other […]”. (basketball coach)
“I think it is important to observe at all times, both on and off the pitch \[…] changing rooms are dangerous areas where there is not as much surveillance”. (football coach)
Awareness-raising“Give talks so that they can see what bullying actually is […]”. (football coach)
“Awareness-raising talks […]”. (swimming coach)
“Put on videos on these topics […]”. (football coach)
Emotional education“Propose activities that allow them to get to know each other emotionally. Empathy and cooperation games to promote and develop emotional intelligence” (acrobatics trainer)
“Empathy exercises to make them feel what their teammates feel in certain situations”. (football coach)
“\[…] I ask them why they did it and how it might make the person they made the gesture or comment to feel”. (skating coach)
“Carry out activities that do not allow the continuous failure or triumph of any player”. (Indoor football coach)
Regulations“I currently have an internal regulation; the players have accepted it and have made proposals…. It says that in case of any disrespect towards a teammate, the aggressor will be expelled […]”. (football coach)
“Warn them that there will be a punishment if any bullying situation is provoked, as it is not right to do so”. (tennis coach)
Conflict intervention“I intervene if I see any verbal or physical fights and resolve them before they escalate”. (martial arts trainer)
“I call out any person who makes a disrespectful gesture towards another person, on or off the rink”. (skating coach)