Individual Exercises in Rhythmic Gymnastics: Variety and Diversity

Catarina Leandro

Lurdes Ávila-Carvalho

Elena Sierra Palmeiro

Marta Bobo Arce

*Corresponding author: Catarina Leandro

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Cite this article

Leandro, C., Ávila-Carvalho, L., Sierra Palmeiro, E., & Bobo Arce, M. (2017). Individual Exercises in Rhythmic Gymnastics: Variety and Diversity. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 128, 92-107.



The purpose of this study is to perform a quantitative and qualitive analysis of the technical elements used in individual exercises in the 2013 World Rhythmic Gymnastics (RG) Championship in Kiev, and to identify the structural characteristics of the composition, which reveals the variety and diversity of RG exercises with each of the apparatuses. A total of 288 competition records were analysed corresponding to the exercises of the 72 gymnasts with each apparatus (hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon). The data were analysed via descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Friedman test). The results showed structural characteristics in the composition of the exercises which were similar in the different modalities in terms of the aspects of the bodyskills that determined the highest percentage of the composition. The exercises with the different apparatuses are distinguished into the groups more related to the artistic part (mastery, dance steps and dynamic elements of rotation with launch, DER), primarily due to the specific characteristics of each apparatus. This study provides up-to-date information on the technical content of the individual exercises in elite RG to be considered with regard to: (1) the possibility of modifying the current Code of Points, particularly the definition of the composition requirements which favour variety and diversity, and to foster the artistic value and technical unity of the apparatus; and (2) the process of formation of value and the performance profile of elite RG.

Keywords: Apparatus Technique, Bodyskills, Diversity, Rhythmic Gymnastics, Variety.

ISSN: 1577-4015

Received: november 28, 2015

Accepted: April 20, 2016

Published: April 01, 2017