Table 1

Criteria and categories of the observation instrument

Player behaviours
Laterality Hand the player uses to grip the stick: right-handed/left-handed.
Feints before hitPossibility of player simulating a direct strike on goal: feint before hit/no feint before hit.
Continuity of movementThe player can execute stick and ball movements without stopping during the direct free hit: there is continuity/there is a pause and no continuity/pause and no continuity.
Technical skill of the player (TSP)Technical action by the player to shoot at goal: hit/drag or stab/dribble.
Final direction of movementFinal direction by the ball to the player’s stick before it is struck from the taker’s standpoint in dribbling: from right to left/from left to right.
Finalisation zone of the action (ZFA1 and ZFA2)ZFAF1= zone of the rink from which the ball it hit: Z1/Z2/Z3/Z4/Z5 and ZFAF2 = right zone/left zone/FD point (Figure 1).
Goalkeeper behaviours
Initial position of the goalkeeper (PI)Stance the goalkeeper takes before performing the technical skills: squat (SQ)/kneeling (KN)/half-screen (HS)/stretched out on the ground (SG)/other initial positions.
Technical skill of the goalkeeper (TSG)Technical action employed by the goalkeeper: screen (SCR)/closing step (CS)/opening legs/arm movements (AM)/pulling the mitt from the stick (PMS)/other technical skills.
Final location of the goalkeeperLocation of the goalkeeper on the rink at the time of the hit: in the goalkeeper area/ the semicircle of the goalkeeper area/in front of the goalkeeper area (Figure 3).
Distance between goalkeeper and playerSeparation between goalkeeper and player when the player hits the ball at goal: more than 1.5 metres/less than 1.5 metres.
Result of the actionResult of the hit: goal/no goal.