Table 1

Evolution of research on women’s coverage.

Author and yearOlympic eventMedium analysedMain findings
Higgs et al. (2003)Barcelona 92-
Atlanta 96
Television: NBCMore male coverage, sports regarded as appropriate
for women, greater criticism of women’s mistakes
Capranica et al. (2005)Sídney 2000Print mediaNationalism, greater equality in coverage
Billings (2007)Atenas 2004Television: NBCGender-differentiated coverage: subjectivity and bias
in the portrayal of women
Greer et al. (2009)Atenas 2004Television: NBCImage biases: visually more exciting male coverage,
symbolic male authority
Billings et al. (2010)Pekín 2008Televisin: NBCLess female coverage, gender differences and lack of
balance in depictions
Jones (2013)Pekín 2008Television digital: ABC, BBC, CBC and TVNZTwice as many male stories and pictures and gender
stereotypes: sportswomen as emotionally weak or
dependent and less committed
Angelini et al. (2012)Vancouver 2010Television: NBCQuantitative imbalance: 3/5 male airtime and 75% of
Kian et al. (2013)Londres 2012Various mediaSports regarded as appropriate for women,
sexualisation, infantilisation and secondary status for
Godoy-Pressland y Griggs (2014)Londres 2012Print mediaMore male photo coverage, more active and in teams
Eagleman (2015)Londres 2012Print mediaGender-differentiated framing, appropriate sport,
infantilised, simplified and female body depictions
Delorme y Testard (2015)Londres 2012Sports mediaUnderrepresentation of women in photographs, albeit without significant differences in size, position or content
MacArthur et al. (2016)Sochi 2014Television: NBCLess coverage of women (41.7%) Gender differences
in depictions of physicality and personality
Litchfield y
Kavanagh (2019)
Río 2016Twitter pagesProgress in the amount of coverage (47% male and
42% female). Gender-differentiated images and
infantilisation of women
Xu et al. (2018)Río 2016China Central
No significant differences found. Male figure skaters
received more airtime than in Western countries
Organista et al. (2020)Vancouver 2010, Londres 2012, Sochi 2014, Río 2016MediaSignificant underrepresentation of women and
differences in the description of rival competitors, nationalism and scant consideration of non-Polish women athletes
Source: authors.